Students often make the mistake of sailing straight into the answering the essay question in the first paragraph without following the convention of beginning with an introduction. Basic introduction paragraphs have a special function. Fortunately, introductions have a recognisable pattern (recipe) you can follow so that you do this correctly.
About introduction paragraphs
The introduction to an essay is very important. It is the FIRST paragraph that the marker reads and should ‘grab’ the reader. Introduction paragraphs are usually about 5% of your essay word count. In clearly-written sentences, the writer gives some background on the main topic; explains the academic problem and tells the reader what to expect in the rest of the essay. You can follow a basic pattern (recipe) for writing introduction paragraphs to help you get started. As essay topics and lecturer requirements vary, you will find that ‘the recipe’ will need to be adjusted to suit the style of essay you will be asked to write.
Try to write your introduction straight from your question analysis, then review it many times while you are writing the body of the essay—this will help you to keep your essay on target (i.e. answering the set question). Note that most introductions generally only include references if definitions are taken from an information source.
Writing pattern for introduction paragraphs
The introduction to an essay is rather like a formal social introduction: How do you do! For example, if an ASO consultant comes to a lecture to do a guest presentation, it would be good practice to be introduced in a meaningful way:
This is Mary Bloggs who is a consultant from the Academic Skills office (relevant info about the person for the job about to be done). Good question analysis is critical to the success of your assignment essay, so it is important that you learn a process for analysing a question (statement of purpose). Mary will work with you on analysis of the question you will be answering in your assignment and will show you how to develop an essay plan from your question (a statement about what will be happening in the next hour).
An introductory paragraph is very much tied to the question that has been set (see Question analysis workshop), and we use special terms to describe each stage of the introduction.
Click or hover over the introductory paragraph below to see an analysis of its structure, and how the introduction matches the set question.
The introduction is usually ‘funnel shaped’. It begins with the broadest topic (sentence 1). Then, it narrows to the thesis statement or the part of the topic that will be specifically addressed in the essay (sentence 2). The last sentence of the paragraph usually outlines the main points that will be covered in the essay (sentence 3).
Figure 1: A pattern for introduction paragraphs
Read the following question and the sample introduction paragraph. The sentences are in the wrong order for an introduction paragraph. Match the statements to the correct sentence type.
Some students who enrol in university studies have difficulties with their writing skills. Discuss the reasons for this problem and critically assess the effectiveness of university intervention writing programs.
Because poor writing skills can affect students’ success in tertiary education, it is important that writing problems are understood so that university assistance programs are adequate.
This essay will identify and examine the main causes underpinning student difficulties with academic writing and consider evidence to evaluate whether programs delivered in universities address this problem.
Assignment essays are frequently used as assessment tasks to involve students in research, academic reading and formal essay writing.
These introduction sentences are in the incorrect order. Now that you have identified the sentence types, put them in the correct order (background statement -> thesis statement -> outline statement) for an introduction paragraph.
Drag the sentences to rearrange them.
Reveals background info leading to a focused thesis statement.
Birds, pigs, rats and other animals all have special talents which have been used by humans. Birds can talk, pigs can find truffles, rats can run wires through walls for plumbers, but no animal has quite as many special talents as dogs, especially when it comes to helping ranchers.
Unrolls as an eye-witness account.
Rubble from earthquake-stricken houses is lying everywhere. Precious lives are buried deep within the piles of dirt, concrete and debris. If rescue workers can locate these souls in time, their lives may be saved. Dog teams arrive. They will employ their amazing talents in this emergency situation.
Uses a quote to lead to the thesis statement.
"Never trust a man a dog doesn't like." the proverbs says. This somehow implies that dogs can tell the character of a person before a human can. In many ways this is true: dogs have amazing talents when it comes to assessing a person's character. But how do they do it? Pet behaviorists give the following explanations.
Starts with the opposite idea and then moves to the focus.
Max was a cute dog, a Tibetan Terrier with a "winning smile", but he had annoying habit of "lifting his leg" on my furniture if I left him alone for more than a couple of hours. Also, half-way through our walks, he would roll on his back indicating he had had enough. I would have to carry him home. Just when I decided to give him up for adoption, he used his amazing talent as a "chick magnet" to find me the love of my life.